meta content='kdmahdi' name='author'/> Tech News: March 2013

Sunday, March 31, 2013

What is Article Marketing

Article marketing is densely related with seo techniques. It is one of the technique of seo which is considered to be the best in Internet Marketing. Article marketing is the way of building backlinks by writing articles which are relevant to the expected websites and submit them to the article directories. Webmasters write article and submit it to the directories in order to generate huge amount of traffic to their websites and getting higher rank by the google.
Benefits of Article Submission:
From the beginning of the seo techniques article submission is referred as the great technique due to its impact on your website at a great extent. There are a lot of benefits we can bring from the article submission.
  • The main benefit can be judged as the improving the ranking  of  the website in the search engines(specially on google) and a backlink which is full of free.
  • Another benefit can be marked as getting huge amount of traffic which is possible by building strong reputation on the directories so that people can trust the owner of the website and visit it frequently.

7 Tips to Write Article Effectively: 

Writing an article roughly cannot bring you traffic to your website. When you write something try to provide some valuable information here. I am giving you some important tips of writing.
  1. Article must be informative ,decorative and free from plagiarized(100% unique).
  2. Your article should contains rich keywords, but stay far from keywords stuffing as it can be penalized by google.
  3. Don't write article just to make it published. Focus on the appeal of the visitors because these visitors will go back to your site.
  4. Article should not be less than 400 words, the lower it will lose its appeal.
  5. Title is the life of the article. Spend some time to fix the title. Because, article is depend on the title. So, choose a killer title.
  6. Use of numbering, bullet and subheadings make a article attractive.
  7. Be aware of grammatical and spelling mistakes. It brings the question of your skillfulness in writing. 
Article submission is very time consuming part of the seo. But, it has a great impact on the long run. It not only give you credit to your link juice but also bring some direct traffic to your websites.

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Thursday, March 28, 2013

Make Money Online By Text Advertising

Those, who are get bored by approving for google adsense I am going to write for them. There are a plenty of ways to make money online. But, we can afford to use few of them. You may hear about In Text advertising. This is kind of online earning programme in where they show add according to your contents or texts of your site. An example can make it vivid to your. Suppose you have a text "Search Engine Optimization" in your content. If you are registered with In Text advertising programme your text appearance will be different from others. When you take your cursor over the text, then it shows an ad. This is what called "In Text Advertising".
Hope I have made it clear to you. Now, I am going to tell you how you can join to this advertising programme.


Among the text advertising sites which is flourishing ostentatiously is Infolinks. It is the most popular test advertising programme who start their mission in 2007. At the outset of the site, it finds very hard to get popularity unlike present. It is working with its partner to the purpose of sharing highest revenue. The official site of 

Can You Earn From Infolinks:

Earning from infolinks is very easy one. What you  need is a blog or website. The most important thing is you must have a lot of content in your site. In order to get approval of infolinks you must flourish your site with plenty  of content. Infolinks does not care about quality of your text. They only focus on quantity of your text.

Get Started With Infoliks: 

Without registering to their site don't deserve to take participate with their advertising programme. In order to get registered go to You can see the "Join Us" button at their homepage. After clicking there following thing can happen-

This form will ask about your personal details. Don't hesitate to provide any personal information. Because, they maintain 100% privacy. By, filling up the form you are going to abide by their privacy policy. Submit your application by "Join Us" button. In the next page you may see the below code-

<script type="text/javascript">

var infolink_pid = 000000;

var infolink_wsid = 0;

You will be told to set these codes on your site. Yo will see a lot of platforms in the right side of the website. Choose any platform according to the form of your site. If you own a blog click on the icon of the blogger or wordpress. Then you will automatically redirected to a page. Follow the next instructions.Registration process will be ended when you click to "done" button. Now, you have successfully registered for the text advertising. They will review your application and you may need to wait 48 hours to get their response.

Payment Methods:

There is nothing exceptional in the payment methods of infolinks. They use paypal, payoneer master card, wire transfer,western union. But, for the Bangladesh you can withdraw money through cheque and payoneer as it does not support paypal. Cheque can be withdrawn if your amount reach to $100 and $50 for the payoneer master card. They pay you within 45 days.
So, start earning with infolinks and if you have any questions ask me by commenting.

Related Topics:

Wednesday, March 27, 2013

Top 6 Mistakes of Blog Commenting

Blog commenting is the easiest way to get a valuable link back to your website. But, everyone cannot use this strategy with effective method. So, they make mistakes and become failed to derive targeted traffic to their website. I am going to introduce you to the effective methods of commenting so that you will be able to get both link and traffic from your commenting.

Whatever you have read about blog commenting till this day, forget everything. I will give some new idea about commenting which you may never acquainted with.
There should be no suspect on this going that building backlinks in the precondition to increase the popularity of your sites or blogs. But, it can be wasting of time if you don't know the correct format of posting comments on blogs.It is considered to be the easiest and effective way to build backlinks by leaving comments. Unfortunately, search engines hide your backlinks as you don't know the correct format of posting. Don't worry I will make you learn how to post on a blog effectively by avoiding mistakes.
  • At first, the most important thing you have to focus on to find the right blog that you want to put comment on the topics that are related to your content. The blogs you are searching don't necessarily need to be the top blog, but they must have some significance commenters and good amount of traffic.
  • Try to make some contributions on the blog by posting productive comments. Spammers are always unwelcome. So, keep avoiding spam the blog. Because, the moderator can delete the post at any time if he finds that you are a spammer and may thank you for spamming.
  • Put your keywords on the name box and that should not be lengthy. Because, lengthy name can be judged as spamming which may cause deleted your post.
  • The big mistake we make while commenting that  by commenting in a site we think are going to get a tons of traffic. But, it is not true. Now, most of the sites contains tag"nofollow" which means search engines don't count it as a backlinks. So, try to comment on dofollow blogs.
  • Don't go for very popular blogs or sites which have strict guidelines. Try to comment on lesser known websites which are dofollow and let users to commenting with less strict rules in order to increase their popularity.
  • Don't post "great post" or "nice post" which are regarded as spam. Try to make something valuable information for others so that you will be able to increase your popularity on that blog.
So, if you will be able to get rid of these mistakes I can assure you that your blog commenting will not be just a wasting of time.

Share ideas about blog commenting process that you think to be the best way.
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Tuesday, March 26, 2013

What is Blog Commenting

Blog commenting is an important part of SEO which is widely used in link building strategy. The commenting takes place in blogs where the readers, bloggers and authors make some  conversation by commenting on a certain topic or article. People writes article for the readers. So, he/she tries best to make it catchy. If the readers like or dislike your article, they can comment both positive or negatively. They can also ask you some questions. And you should not be lazy to answer these questions. Blog commenting helps to increase the popularity of a blog. It is a free and best way to exchange your thoughts and feelings on certain topic. If you are experienced with SEO, you must know the important of commenting. It helps you to store knowledge on unknown topic and you can make some vivid idea about the topic by posting questions. And you can get the answer immediately as the bloggers are careful enough about their blogs.
There are two types of blog- 1.Dofollow Blog Commenting and 2. Nofollow Blog commenting.

Dofollow Blog Commenting: The word "link juice" is related to dofollow blog commenting. It is the most popular way of commenting. It helps your website to help in search engine ranking.

Nofollow Blog Commenting: It is also an important method of commenting. It will not help you to increase rank of your site. But, your site will get a huge amount of traffics by this method.

Why should I participate in Blog Commenting:

  • As I told you before, it is an important part of SEO. The more comments you get, the more search engine index your blog or sites. By commenting the readers keep the pages updated which is very important for your site as google loves update content and make you differ from the static sites. Updated contents get higher rank from search engines. So, your sites are being updated without your efforts and save your time.
  • The most interesting is that, both the owners and readers can participate in commenting. Owners and authors of the sites can increase their inbound links by commenting. You will notice that you have the chance to put your URL on the commenting box. If your comment is approved, then you will get a free backlink to your website which is very helpful in seo purpose.
  • The authors may be updated with valuable resources on the certain topic which may be post by the readers. So, it is also a great chance for the authors to get some unique ideas.

Blog commenting process:

Since the birth of the web it has been widely proved that it is a storehouse of knowledge. So, blog commenting has been proved as a great idea of sharing resources and information through commenting. It is not only the sharing of knowledge and information, but also provide you a free important link for your website. Modern websites are made with wordpress and blogger or typad and follow similar content management system for their commenting process. At first, you have to chose a topic. Then read the full topic and get some idea about it. Post your questions or opinions on that topic. Keep in mind. Don't try to spam. If you do that, your comment may not be approved. You should use your own name or the company name to get it approved faster.
Trackback is another important way in commenting process. You can post your link in commenting  which is similar to the post you are commenting. It derives some organic traffic in your website.

So, blog commenting is not a ghostly matter,if you have already read the post. Let me know your experience on commenting.

You may be interested in:

Sunday, March 24, 2013

Facebook like this button

Facebook has launched a lot social plugins just few days ago. But, they have made a great surprise for us by launching like button. It helps you to share your content with friends on facebook. If someone clicks to this button a news feed appears on the wall of the friends link back to your website. This is a great tool to improve your search engine ranking. It helps you to derive some traffic on your website. So, what are you waiting for? Lets get the button quickly and easily. There are two like button implementations XFBML and i-frame. The former version is more versatile but it needs javascript. Now, lets install the button to blogger.
Step 1: How to add to your template
The first thing you need to do is adding the below code to your template.

How to add this code to blogger? Follow these steps-
  • Log in to
  • Then click on 'Template"
Then click to "Edit html" button.

  • Before doing anything new click on check box "Expand Widget Template".
  • Then press ctrl+f and paste the below code
  • After it paste the button code.
  • If you don't find it try the following
  • Copy and paste the code into find box.
  • Change the red pointed words and put here your site name.
  • Paste the button code before it.
  • Then click "save template". 
  • Now you have got your button.


Mingling of Tragic and Comic Elements of Shakespeare.

There is an allegation goes on about Shakespeare that he is not mindful about mixing tragic and comic elements in the same play. Johnson takes the point to defend Shakespeare. He totally does not denied that Shakespeare's plays cannot considered directly as comedy and tragedy. His plays are exceptional in nature in which he reflects real stage of life. Life is not formed with thoroughly happiness and sorrow. Rather, it is the combination of both sorrow and happiness. In order to show the true state of nature one cannot reflect happiness or sorrow consistently, the loss of one is replaced by another. A man can be beaten by the frailty and frolic of another. He/She can be harmed of helped as the person who is responsible for this happening, has not the intend to do so. The poets of old age used to cover their writings with foolishness  lighter incidents, terrors of distress and joy of prosperity and consistently used them in several plays. This is the way in which tragedy and comedy are treated. But, we hardly see any single example of depicting the tragedy and comedy in the same plays. Even the Greek or Roman have not practiced this theory. But, Shakespeare is the only genius who depicts both joy and sorrow on the same play which rear one. His plays have all the elements of real life absurdities, seriousness and sorrow and sometimes happiness  and laughter. 
If you go through the rules of dramatic writing, Shakespeare mingling of tragedy and comedy do not keep pace with them. But, rules are less important than the reflection of real nature. So, rules can be sacrificed in order to get the greater pleasure. Poetry has got a specific aim that is to please and instruct the readers. So, if we make a comparison with mingled drama and pure drama we will clearly find out that mingled drama is more pleasurable and instruct able than pure drama, because the former is dealt with the reality. Passions is intensified by the mingling of tragedy and comedy. In the major cases, mingled drama provide us greater pleasure as the pleasure derives from the variety of plays.

Friday, March 22, 2013

Arms and the Man: Chapter Summaries


In the Act-III, Raina's reality has been revealed to Sergius. As Bluntschli decided to stay here for some couple of days. So, Raina gets a chance to make a few private conversation. Raina says that he loves Sergius and she is not used to telling lies. But, she has to do it for the twice in her life. One  is at her bedchamber to save Bluntschli and another is when she sees Bluntschli and called him "chocolate cream soldier". But, Bluntschli rejected her claim straightly. He tells to her that people used to tell lies and she is not the exception. Her affection to the Sergius is deceptive. Raina is densely surprised by his straightforward words. She has become speechless. Because, everything is told by Bluntschli are true. She always speaks to her parents even to her  nurse when she was a child in lofty manner. They never disbelieve her. But, he is the only man who does not believe her lofty tone and expose the reality without any hesitation. By this incident, Raina has greatly been attracted by Bluntschli which started from their first meeting.
Sergius has been able to figure out that he is in deep love with Louka and would like to marry her. Now, he makes excuses to get rid of Raina by accusing her making love with Bluntschli. Raina did not tolerate his this kind of awful manner and also accused her about making love with maid servant Louka. By this time, Major Petkoff is brought into the scene and he has become puzzled by this condition. Then he asked Raina to whom she wants to go Sergius or Bluntschli. In the response, she utters she does not want any of them because to whom she is engaged, wants to marry Louka. Petkoff replies that Louka is engaged with Nicola, so it is no use of his desire. But, Nicola rejects his claim and tells that he is not engaged with Louka, it is just make sure her safety.
It is cleared to everyone that Sergius wishes to marry Louka and congratulated by Bluntschli. Louka says Raina is more interested to Bluntschli than Sergius. But, Bluntschli tells her that she will not like a man of thirty-four, where she is just seventeen. With these words, he is scolded by Raina as she is a woman of twenty three. Now, Bluntschli realizes that she is interested to him and offers her father to giver her hands. As he is the owner of six hotels, so it is possible for him to make sure a comfortable life to Raina Petkoff. And the play ends happily with Sergius deciding to marry Louka, and Raina deciding to marry Bluntschli.
Related Topics:
Arms and the Man: Summary Act-I

Thursday, March 21, 2013

Arms and the Man: Chapter Summaries


The act II started with the frustration of Sergius. After the end of the war, Major Petkoff and Sergius came back to home. They felt pretty comfortable after coming back from a long train of hard work. Catherine, hoped to be promoted Sergius due to his bravery in the battlefield. But, Petkoff denied his promotion and told her he  may be court-martialled due to his blunder of ordering a cavalry charge. This makes Sergius very frustrate. The Bulgarian got the victory due to his cavalry charge, but he is not given promotion due to his taking of wrong procedure. If he applied the right method of waging war, he might be promoted even they are defeated in the battlefield. From his disappointment, he made cynical view about the profession of soldier. He says that soldiering is a coward's art of attacking the enemy when he is weak, and keeping away from the battle when the enemy is strong. They do not fight on equal terms. In that case, Catherine tries to console him.
Raina is no longer admires to the Sergius. A series of changes have taken place in her mind. She does not care if Sergius knows about the incidents that she has given shelter to a refugee. Then the story turns into more interesting when Bluntschli comes to the Petkoff house to return his old coat. Catherine tries her best to send him off before the eyes of Petkoff and Sergius. But, she fails to do it. Bluntschli has been caught by the eyes of Pekoff. Catherine has got stunned when she sees that he has been greeted by her husband. As he is no longer an enemy Sergius also greets him. Major Petkoff offers him to stay here for a couple of days in order to help him about some technical problems. He agrees and entered into the house. Raina has become very delighted by seeing him and screams by his given name " chocolate cream soldiers". Later, she realizes she utters something  which should not be done towards her fiance and father. Then she covers it with a lie. Infact, both Catherine and Raina don't want reveal the secret of that night in which the refugee takes shelter in that house. Bluntschli, is requested to stay there for a couple of days. And here the Act II ends.
Previous: Act-I Summary                                                                    Next: Act-II Summary

Tuesday, March 19, 2013

Couldn't open Youtube? It's easy to open.

Haven't you been able to open youtube? You must be waiting for my blog. Bangladesh government has banned youtube  due to the abuse of our Prophet Mohammad (S). But, it is no longer a difficult task to open youtube. You can do it simply following the steps are given below-
  1. At first open your browser(Mozilla or Google chrome).
  2. Then go to
  3. In the page you will see "youtube" at the top of the page.

Google Homepage

      4.Click there.
      5.Then you will automatically redirected to homepage of the youtube.
      6.Then watch and upload whatever you like.

Tell me about the post by commenting and inform me if you face any problem.

Monday, March 18, 2013

Arms and the Man: Chapter Summaries

    Act I

Arms and the Man was written by George Bernard Shaw in the year of 1894. It was published in Shaw's second volume of plays. The story of this drama begins with the victory of Bulgaria over Serbia in 1885. The victory has been ensured by the one of the Bulgarian army named Major Sergius, who made a cavalry charge over Serbian. Due to the wrong ammunition of Serbians, the cavalry charge made it easy for the Bulgarian to win over Serbian. The Cavalry Charge was not an intelligent move. Because, it could be responsible for the death of thousands soldiers of Bulagaria. Actually, it was a great mistake done by Sergius, though Bulgaria could manage to win the war.

The Serbian soldiers were defeated and start fleeing from the battlefield. One of  them named Bluntschli, who was a Swiss artillery captain and waging war against Bulgaria. He tress passes into the bedchamber of Raina, who was engaged to Major Sergius and the daughter of Major Petkoff. 
Raina is dreamy girl who has some illusions about life, get surprised by the behave of this soldier. According to Raina, soldiers are brave and bold. They are not afraid of death. But, her romantic idea about the soldiers has totally changed when she meets Bluntschli. She has been convinced that soldiers are also human being and they are subjected to death. They also have fear of death as Bluntschli is trying his best to keep him away from the Bulgarian soldiers. She was stunned when she comes to learn that Bluntschli carries chocolate instead of cartridges. As she sees him hungry, she offers some chocolate to him. He devours the chocolate creams; then she gives him the name of "chocolate cream soldiers". Being sympathized with the wretched condition of this chocolate cream soldiers, Raina decided to give him shelter and save him from the Russian soldiers who were searching for the fugitives in her room. Then Raina able to know the true fact of cavalry charge which is made by her fiance. The cavalry charge which led by Sergius is one of the most ridiculous incidents in the life of Bluntschli and the former should be court-martialled for his unpardonable mistake. Raina informs her mother about fugitive that she gives shelter and save him from the Bulgarian army. Catherine was not too happy with this immature action of Raina, but agreed to let the intruder remain in the house for that night. Then the intruder felt asleep and in the morning he leaves the house of Petkoff with old coat of Major Petkoff.

Upcoming Topic
Arms and the Man: Summary Act II

Sunday, March 17, 2013

Oedipus Rex

Use of Suspense and dramatic irony in Oedipus Rex.
Dramatic irony is a technique where the audiences are sagacious about the fate of characters which is unconscious to them. It is a wonderful method to intensify the tragic atmosphere where characters words and actions are contradictory to actual situation. Sophocles uses this method effectively in Oedipus Rex. This play is filled with dramatic irony. Almost all the speeches of the characters except Teiresias  are ironical. Most of the dramatic ironies can be found in the speeches of Oedipus. Whatever comes from his tongue are filled with dramatic ironies except his last few words.
Dramatic irony is noticeable at the beginning of the play. Sophocles chooses to open this play after Oedipus has been king of Thebes for some time.  In this situation, Oedipus has already committed the most terrible deed for which he strives throughout the play to circumvent. This terrible deed makes Oedipus both a heroic and a condemned figure. In the first impression Sophocles makes him as a great leader and perfect citizen. In the very early scene, he shows his commitment to his people by suffering alongside of them and vowing to avenge the death of Laius. But, he does not know that this commitment can bring his destruction which is well-know to the audience.
“Then once more I must bring what is dark to light. It is most fitting that Apollo shows, as you do, this compunction for the dead. You shall see how I stand by you, as I should, to avenge the city and the city’s god, And not as though it were for some distant friend, But for my own sake, to be rid of evil.”
His words strike an emotional chord with the audience. They are instantly aware that he is celebrated by his subjects for his empathetic ear and keen sense of justice.
Dramatic irony works most effectively in this play because the viewing audience is acquainted with the premise of the story, which involves many of the commonly held religious beliefs and historical traditions. The characters try to fight with their fate but they are defeated finally.
The quarrel between Oedipus and Teiresias is another good example of dramatic irony. Teiresias, who is blind man knows the truth about the killer of king Lauis. When he utters the name of Oedipus, he lost his mind with extreme anger and call him-
                   “Shameless and brainless, sightless, senseless sot.”
All the words are dramatic irony. In spite of being a blind man Teiresias knows the truth. But, Oedipus who has eyes is ignorant and sightless. But the  most suspenseful and tragic irony is noticeable when the messenger get into the character. Oedipus addresses Jocasta as ‘O wife’ and this makes a sense of melancholic in the reader’s mind. Because, he is calling her mother as his wife.
A good deal of dramatic irony can be found from the speeches of Jocasta who is skeptic in oracle and trying to disapprove it. It is Jocasta who overjoyed and satirizes  theory of oracle when the messenger come with message of death of Polybus.
                   ‘’Where are you now, divine prognostications?
The man who Oedipus has avoided all the years,
Lest he should kill him dead! By a natural death
And no act of his!”
The last ironic combination of prophecy and reality occurs when Oedipus reaches Thebes. It is his challenge to solve the riddle of the sphinx which has been plaguing Thebes for some time. Sophocles heightens the stakes of this last challenge by drawing upon the powers of intellect and courage to build up his hero even more. Sophocles illustrates Oedipus intelligence by his ability to answer the great riddle. His courage is shown in his ability to face the Sphinx knowing the fate of those who had failed the riddle before him. Ironically, it is also his intelligence and courage that wins him the right to marry the Queen of Thebes. It is his ignorance of not knowing that she is his birth mother, not his lack of intelligence, which commits him to his fate.
Sophocles leaves us with one more classic example of irony. The third and final stage of the Sphinx’s riddle is realized only after Oedipus discerns the horrible truth about his existence:
“Ah God! It was true! All the prophecies! –Now, O Light, may I look on you for the last time! I, Oedipus, Oedipus, damned in his birth, in his marriage damned, Damned in the blood he shed with his own hand!”
At the end of the play, until the conclusion of his life, Oedipus is condemned to wander the earth as a blind old man who will forever walk with the use of a cane. This is the third foot to which the Sphinx referred. By answering the riddle correctly, Oedipus has become the riddle himself. This situation is perhaps the greatest example of the power of contrasting degrees of awareness. Oedipus is unaware of his fate in which he is destined to marry his mother after defeating the Sphinx. The audience, however, long familiar with the ancient myth is mindful that in solving the riddle Oedipus further condemns himself.
At last, we can reach to a decision that dramatic irony is very vital device in this play. It constitutes suspension and leads the play to climax which is exposed to the readers.
Related Topic:                                                  
Phaedra as an Unrequited love                                                       

Upcoming Topic:
Arms and the Man

Friday, March 15, 2013

Anne Bradstreet: Prologue Study Questions

How Anne Bradstreet Criticize the male society in her Prologue.

In the prologue, Anne Bradstreet criticizes the frailty and folly attitude of men towards women. In order to criticizes the male society, Bradstreet seeks help some literary devices such as- irony and sarcasm. He satire the whole male society with her soft tone. But, behind her soft tone there is a extreme criticism of male society. She is very polite with the male society. But, her politeness marks the irony.
At the outset of the poem, she uses some understatements to make her position cleared. She uses "mean pen" which indicate to her creativity. But, ironically she uses it to indicate her inability. She compares her with Bartas, who has the chance to write whatever he likes. But, in spite of being talented like Bartas, she is not allowed to do anything according to her will. She sharply criticizes this attitude of male society with polite tone.
She uses another understatements to compare her with school boy and from the later we cannot except anything rhetorical.

                      "From school-boy's tongue no Rhet'ric we except,
                       Nor yet a sweet consort from broken strings.
Her inability is inborn. That is why, cannot be irreparable.

                     "And this to mend alas, no art is able
                      Cause nature made it so irreparable".

Though she degrades her position by comparing herself with school-boy, but we know she is the first woman who writes something valuable in the early american society.
In the fourth stanza, she compares herself with Demosthenes who mumbles at his early life. But, he had been able to come out from this problem and becomes a great orator. But, as their worse situation  are made by the nature, so it is impossible for them to get rid of it.

                    "Art can do much but this maxim's most sure
                      A week or wounded brain admits no cure."

According to  men, women are week by their born. So, they compel  a woman to feel herself as week. This prejudice of men criticized by Bradstreet with polite tone. But, her politeness are no longer exist in the next stanza. She brings directs attacks to male society from fifth stanza. Here she reflects the hostility of the women with the male world. The male society does not want them to have the taste of the enlighten world. So, they want to confined them in darkness. They think that world will destroy,if they are brought out of the house. Male world does not want her to ride on top. She uses "obnoxious" and "carping tongue" to clarify the hostility of the male world. They try to degrade the position of her by telling her that,"Her hands fit better at needle".
In the next stanza, her criticism becomes more direct and she uses some hyperbolic expression to criticize male society in sarcastic way. She uses "excel" and "preeminence" which are sarcastic expression. She calls male society cowards. Because, they want to wage war to whom, are not equal in power to them. So, it is huge unjust of male society.
In the last stanza, she tries to understand the male society that, their writings are not worthless and valueless. If they think so, then they should acknowledge their works and make a sit for them beside their work. Because, their unrefined works cannot dim their worth rather it will shine like glistering gold.
Thus, Anne Bradstreet uses polite tone to criticize the male world. But, she is quite successful in her campaign. Because, she draws the attention of the reader by using sarcastic and ironic expression.
You may Interested in Following-
Anne Bradstreet: Prologue
Summary & Analysis
Prologue as a Lyric Poem

Thursday, March 14, 2013

Prologue: Study Questions

Anne Bradstreet's prologue as a lyric.

Before evaluating the prologue as a lyrical poem, we have to know what lyric is.
Lyric poem is that kind of poem, which usually short and personal expressing the poet's personal feelings and emotions rather than telling a story.This definition of lyric absoulately match with the characteristics of the prologue.

In the prologue, Bradstreet expresses her personal feelings and emotions against the attitude of male society. Women were treated as the servant in the early puritan society. They were confined to the home. It is not possible for them to go outside of the fixed territory without any emergency. So, they were kept in darkness. Looking after the master and children, were their chief tasks. They were disconnected from the social revolution. Women cannot do whatever she likes. There is no value of her likes and dislikes. They often forced to do the things against their will.

Women had not any right to practice art and literature. If someone does so, she will be disconnected from the society.The male society made them week at their birth. They had been brought to the state that, they are soft and they should behave softer and talk  in lower voice. The male society cannot bear their advancement. If someone does something valuable, they say," she must copy or happen it by chance". The male society is reluctant to acknowledge their creations. So, this kind of harsh attitude of male society cannot be acceptable and Bradstreet bitterly criticizes it. She criticizes bitterly, but in a soft tone by using some understatements and exaggerations.

So, the prologue contains the personal feelings and emotions of the poet, for that we can consider the Prologue as lyric.
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Wednesday, March 13, 2013

Prologue: Summary, Analysis & Explanation

In the next stanza, she again expresses her pathos for the women as the nature made them irreparable.
                                  Nor can I, like that fluent sweet-tongue Greek
                                 A week and wounded brain admits no cure.
Demosthenes, who is the great orator of Greek, mumbled at first. But, his unstoppable attempts makes him possible to speak plain. But, the condition of the women is not curable. Because, they are made week and wounded by the nature. So, a week and wounded brain have no cure.
                              I am obnoxious to each carping tongue,
                              They'll say it's stolen, or else it was by chance.
She is not adorable to the carping tongue of male. They said her hands best fit with the needle.  If any woman does something great they will say, she must steal someone else work or it happens by chance.
                             But sure the antique Greeks were far more mild,
                             Yet grant some small acknowledgement of ours.
However, the Greeks in someway show respect to the women. It is clear that, men are preeminently excel than women. We also acknowledge the precedence of men. But, it is very unfair to wage war with women as they are not equal to the men. Women know that men can do best. But, the only thing women want from men is to little acknowledgement in their writing. It will not dim their worth, if they do so.
                            And oh ye high flown quills that soar the skies,
                           Will make to glist'ring gold but more to shine.
The last stanza contains the direct attack to the male society. The writings of women are not less worthy than men. They just need to be positive with women. Bradstreet urges the male just to acknowledge their creations, they will not claim anything from them. This mean and unrefined lines of her will not dark their worth, rather it will make their works more shining.

Tuesday, March 12, 2013

Prologue: Summary & Analysis

Anne Bradstreet was the first woman of early puritan society who wrote few intelligent and artistic words. The early puritan society was not favorable for the women. They were neglected and regarded as the servant of men. They have no right to do or write something creative. So, always confined to domestic chores. Their chief task is to look after husband and children. They are totally deprived of enlightenment. So, in this adverse condition Bradstreet wrote this prologue to make the male society realized importance of women in the society. 
She did it with help of the rhetorical device "satire", which is used to expose the truth through humor. To expose the truth of the society she uses very soft tone. In the first stanza, she says-
                                           To sing of Wars, of Captain, of Kings
                                          My obscure lines shall not dim their worth.
She straightly acknowledges that, it is impossible for her to write something valuable about the glorious thing of world. Because, she has got a pen which is mean. So, her mean pen  is unable to praise the glorious things and she leaves it to the Great poets and historians. Her lines are valueless or worthless to those poet's creations and these cannot dark their worth. So,the first stanza makes us ready for praise for the women which comes in next stanza in a direct way.
In the second stanza, she gives us a vivid idea about gender discrimination in the puritan society.
                                         But when my wond'ring eyes and  envious heart
                                        But simple I according to my skill.
In these lines, she makes a comparison herself with Bartas. She agrees that she has less intellect than Bartas.
She is jealous with the great creations of Bartas. But, she cannot do whatever she likes. Bartas has the chance to do anything in ocean of art and culture. Though, she has same quality like Bartas , does not get the chance or free will to do something which can overstep Bartas.
                                         From school-boy's tongue no Rhetoric we expect,
                                        Cause nature made it so irreparable
We cannot expect anything rhetoric or creative from the mouth of a school-boy. So, the male society thinks women like school-boy. Beauty cannot be perfect where is a defect. The defect which women inherits is irreparable. Because, their defect comes with them at their birth. Nature makes it impossible to cure this inability and they cannot be equal to the men. 


Sunday, March 10, 2013

Anne Bradstreet: Prologue


The Prologue, was the first literary work produced by a female in the early puritan society. It was written in 1650 and published in England, as it is impossible for women to publish literary works in early American society.

                                           To sing of Wars, of Captain, of Kings
                                           Of cities founded, common-wealth begun,
                                            For my mean Pen are to superior things
                                           Or how they all, or each their dates have run
                                            Lets Poets and Historians set these forth.
                                           My obscure lines shall not so dim their worth.

But when my wond'ring eyes and envious heart
Great Bartas' sugar'd lines do but read o'er,
Fool, I do grudge the Muses did not part
'Twixt him and me that over-fluent store.
A Bartas can do what a Bartas will
But simple I according to my skill.

From School-boy's tongue no Rhet'ric we expect,
Nor yet a sweet Consort from broken strings,
Nor perfect beauty where's a main defect.
My foolish, broken, blemished Muse so sings,
And this to mend, alas, no Art is able,
'Cause Nature made it so irreparable. 

Nor can I, like that fluent sweet-tongued Greek
Who lisp'd at first, in future times speak plain.
By Art he gladly found what he did seek,
A full requital of his striving pain.
Art can do much, but this maxim's most sure:
A weak or wounded brain admits no cure. 

I am obnoxious to each carping tongue
Who says my hand a needle better fits.
A Poet's Pen all scorn I should thus wrong,
For such despite they cast on female wits.
If what I do prove well, it won't advance,
They'll say it's stol'n, or else it was by chance. 

But sure the antique Greeks were far more mild,
Else of our Sex, why feigned they those nine
And poesy made Calliope's own child?
So 'mongst the rest they placed the Arts divine,
But this weak knot they will full soon untie.
The Greeks did sought but play the fools and lie. 

Let Greeks be Greeks, and Women what they are.
Men have precedency and still excel;
It is but vain unjustly to wage war.
Men can do best, and Women know it well.
Preeminence in all and each is yours;
Yet grant some small acknowledgement of ours. 

And oh ye high flown quills that soar the skies,
And ever with your prey still catch your praise,
If e'er you deign these lowly lines your eyes,
Give thyme or Parsley wreath, I ask no Bays.
This mean and unrefined ore of mine
Will make your glist'ring gold but more to shine.

Tuesday, March 5, 2013

Tips to Maximize Profit

How to run a profitable business in a bad economy

Profit and loss are the most common phenomena in business. In a good economy it is possible for the businessmen to make a good profit. But, in a bad economy it is harder to make a profit. It is not impossible to make profit in a tough time. However, there are some business industries that make profit even in bad economy. You have to follow some rules to make profit in tough time.
The first can be recommended that “Don’t give up your hopes”. You should always keep in your mind that you can exceed the loss in bad time. If you want to get a good profit in a bad economy just follow these instructions-

§     In bad economy customers change their mind. So, you should focus on what the customers want. Customers do not want to spend too much money in bad time. So, you have to make sure for them quality goods with low prices.
§   Don’t be impatient.  You should remain relax in front of customers. During dealing don’t be too eager. If your product is good and within at affordable cost, customers will take it easily.

§  Make a good relation with your customers. To make a good relation with your customers is the key to get success at the time of recession. You can advertise your business through your customers without any cost. When a customer tells another about your business may cause a new customer in which you have no investments.
§      Stay connected with your old customers. It is easier for you to get a deal from old clients than new ones. They spend more than new customers also pay more due to relationship that you set with him/her.

§       At present, customer services play a vital role to growth of business. You can give them free services on your product or a special discount. It always draws the attention of the customers. Share your personal feeling about the products. It will help you to make a good relation with them.

§     Most important thing you have to keep on your mind that you should not make any inadequate costs. You should make expenditures according to its importance.
So, if you do all things accordingly you can expect to have a good profit even in a bad economy.

Saturday, March 2, 2013

Literature: Phaedra

Phaedra as an unrequited love.

Phaedra is one of the most wonderful creations of Seneca which contains the story of a lady who is burning with a forbidden passion. The play was named after the name of the protagonist of the play who falls in an illicit love with her stepson Hippolytus. Several elements can found in Phaedra, which make it as an unrequited love. To consider Phaedra as an unrequited love, we should go through the play.
The play starts with the lamentation of Phaedra who is in wretched condition because of her husband who left her to help his friend to the underworld. It is a common believe that no one can come back from there.  She has become alone. She cannot sleep or take rest. She does not find any interest in dancing. What she figures out is a lawless passion in her mind. She has understood that, she is in love with her stepson Hippolytus. Unreason driving her to this unlawful passion and she cannot control it. Because, everything is under controlled by love god Cupid. She cannot do anything against him. So, she lost control over her mind. Now, she is determined to get her love at any cost. She does not care about the people, world and her husband. She just wants to make love with Hippolytus. Nothing can stop her from fulfilling her wicked desire. She loves her own stepson Hippolytus, which is not concern to her. Whatever she knows that she loves Hippolytus and she will get him at any cost.
The nurse, who is the most important person in Phaedra’s life and  the only guard come to know about the unlawful passion of Phaedra. She advises her to wage war against her unlawful passion. Shake it off before engulfing. Once she accepts it could not come back. Her passion is an unpardonable sin. This cannot happen and consequence of this love is horrible. He says Phaedra-

“Cleanse your pure heart at once of such evil thoughts”
Stand up to love and rout him
At the first assault, that is the surest way
To win without a fail.”

In order to bring Phaedra in the right path the Nurse spends some moral lessons. But, nothing can make her sooth. She says-

“Unreason drives me into evil,
I walk upon the brink with open eyes,
Wise counsel calls, but I cannot turn back
To hear it.”

She has become deaf and blind. Infact, the Nurse tries to understand her saying that royal pride abhors correction. But, she is unchanged and crying for her illicit passion. At last, The Nurse says-

“Do you want to be common spouse of father and son”?

All the efforts of the Nurse go in vain. Evil wins finally. When Phaedra is determined to commit suicide, she agrees to help her in this matter. Then she goes to the most stubborn young man Hippolytus who is a misogynist. Nurse urges him to quit way of life that he maintains. His life is worthless. He should not sleep alone. He needs a companion. The nurse invites him technically to come back to the city and enjoy the life. But, her words cannot touch the ears of Hipplytus. He says that he is happy what he has. He does not want more than it. He wants to end his life with nature. By this way he can stay off from the unpardonable sin done by the city dwellers. By this time, Phaedra comes and falls in the ground. Hippolytus lifts her and takes her in his arms. The wickedness of phaedra’s mind has been started. She uses different ways to express her love to Hippolytus. But, everytime she is unsuccessful. At last,shaking  off all her shame Phaedra proposes her love to Hippolytus.
Hearing this Hippolytus  has become crazy. He instantly refuses her proposal and curses her for this kind of wicked thinking. Hippolytus wants to cut her into pieces but he changes his  mind instantly when he hears that she wants to die at his hand. Then  the Nurse make a plot to cover the crime of Phaedra. She accuses Hippolytus in the way that he attempts to rape his step-mother.
By this time, Theseus comes back from the underworld  unexpectedly. He comes to know the fact that his lovely wife Phaedra wants to take her life away. When he wants to about the culprit, Phaedra tells him to see the sword that the rapist left. Then he makes sure that the rapist is no one his only son HIppolytus. Then he makes his last wish to destroy Hippolytus. According to his wish HIppolytus  was killed by the  monster  and after his death this play reaches to its climax.  Phaedra cannot bear the death of Hippolytus  and commit suicide.
So if we consider the whole story of this play we can find that Phaedra is the story of an unrequited love. Phaedra, the central character of the play loves HIppolytus, but she does not get her love back. Hippolytus loves his father, but he does not get the expected behave from his father and finally killed by him. And the Nurse who loves Phaedra does not get it back. So, it is clear that Phaedra is the story of an unrequited love.
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